Monetary economics is a branch of economics that historically prefigured and remains integrally linked to macroeconomics. Monetary economics provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account. It considers how money, for example fiat currency, can gain acceptance purely because of its convenience as a public good. It examines the effects of monetary systems, including regulation of money and associated financial institutions and international aspects.
Modern analysis has attempted to provide a micro-based formulation of the demand for money and to distinguish valid nominal and real monetary relationships for micro or macro uses, including their influence on the aggregate demand for output. Its methods include deriving and testing the implications of money as a substitute for other assets and as based on explicit frictions.
Research areas have included:
* empirical determinants and measurement of the money supply, whether narrowly-, broadly-, or index-aggregated, in relation to economic activity * debt-deflation and balance-sheet theories, which hypothesize that over-extension of credit associated with a subsequent asset-price fall generate business fluctuations through the wealth effect on net worth. and the relationship between the demand for output and the demand for money
* monetary implications of the asset-price/macroeconomic relation * the importance and stability of the relation between the money supply and interest rates, the price level, and nominal and real output of an economy. * monetary impacts on interest rates and the term structure of interest rates * lessons of monetary/financial history * transmission mechanisms of monetary policy as to the macroeconomy * the monetary/fiscal policy relationship to macroeconomic stability * neutrality of money vs. money illusion as to a change in the money supply, price level, or inflation on output * tests and testability of rational-expectations theory as to changes in output or inflation from monetary policy * monetary implications of imperfect and asymmetric information and fraudulent finance * game theory as a modeling paradigm for monetary and financial institutions * the political economy of financial regulation and monetary policy * possible advantages of following a monetary-policy rule to avoid inefficiencies of time inconsistency from discretionary policy * “anything that central bankers should be interested in.”